Service de Santé et pathologies de la Faune sauvage




Maas M., Tatem-Dokter R., Rijks J., Dam-Deisz C., Franssen F., van Bolhuis H., Heddergott M., Schleimer A., Schockert V., Lambinet C., Hubert P., Redelijk T., Janssen R., Cruz APL., Martinez IC., Caron Y., Linden A. et al. (2021).
Population genetics, invasion pathways and public health risks of the raccoon and its roundworm Baylisascaris procyonis in northwestern Europe.
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases (2021).

Bayrou C., Lesenfants C., Paternostre J., Volpe R., Moula N., Coupeau D., Muylkens B., Desmecht D., Linden A. (2021).
Schmallenberg virus, cyclical reemergence in the core region: A seroepidemiologic study in wild cervids, Belgium, 2012–2017.
Transbound Emerg Dis. 2021;00:1–9.

Desmecht D., Gerbier G., Gortazar Schmidt C., Grigaliuniene V., Helyes G., Kantere M., Korytarova D., Linden A., et al. (2021).
Epidemiological analysis of African swine fever in the European Union (September 2019 to August 2020).
EFSA Journal 2021;19(5):6572.



Dellicour, S., Desmecht, D., Paternostre, J., Malengreaux, C., Licoppe, A., Gilbert, M., & Linden, A. (2020).
Unravelling the dispersal dynamics and ecological drivers of the African swine fever outbreak in Belgium.
Journal of Applied Ecology. 00:1–11.

Volpe, R., Fett, T., Cassart, D., Godfroid, J., & Linden, A. (2020).
Mixed Mycobacterium avium subspecies aviumand M avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in a wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Belgium.
Veterinary Record Case Reports. 8(1)

Licoppe A., Lievens J., Della Libera F., Herrin T., Malengreaux C., Boudart J.L., De Waele V., Fichefet V., Linden A., Lesenfants C., Van Goethem A., Villers M., Scohy J.-P., Herman M. (2020).
Use of boar trapping in the context of the management  of African Swine fever in Wallonia. Pratical aspects, preliminary results and recommendations.
A publication of the Wallonia Public Service / SPW-ARNE / DEMNA – DNF and of ULiège university.

Jori, G. Massei, A. Licoppe, F. Ruiz-Fons, A. Linden, P. Václavek, E. Chenais, C. Rosell. (2020).
Management of wild boar populations in the European Union before and during the ASF crisis.
COST ASF, Chap 7, accepted for publication.

Schoder, M.-E., Tignon, M., Linden, A., Vervaeke, M., & Cay, A. B. (2020).
Evaluation of seven commercial African swine fevervirus detection kits and three Taq polymerases on 300 well-characterized field samples.
Journal of Virological Methods, 280 (2020) 113874.

Miteva, A., Papanikolaou, A., Gogin, A., Boklund, A., Botner, A., Linden, A. et al. (2020).
Epidemiological analyses of African swine fever in the European Union (November 2018 to October 2019).
EFSA Journal, 18(1), 5996.

De Waele V., Linden A., Licoppe A., Malengreaux C., Villers M., Scohy J.-P., Herman M. (2020).
Peste porcine africaine en Wallonie. Rétrospective et perspectives.
Communication du Service Public de Wallonie / SPW-ARNE / DEMNA – DNF et de l’ULiège.

Benzarti E, Sarlet M, Franssen M, Cadar D, Schmidt-Chanasit J, Rivas JF, Linden A, Desmecht D & Garigliany M. (2020).
Usutu Virus Epizootic in Belgium in 2017 and 2018: Evidence of Virus Endemization and Ongoing Introduction Events.
Vector Borne and Zoonotic Disease 20(1):43-50



Garigliany, M.-M., Desmecht, D., Tignon, M., Cassart, D., Lesenfant, C., Paternostre, J., Volpe, R., Cay, A. B., Van Den Berg,T., & Linden, A. (2019).
Phylogeographic Analysis of African Swine Fever Virus, Western Europe, 2018.
Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(1).

Linden, A., Gilliaux, G., Paternostre, J., Benzarti, E., Rivas, J. F., Desmecht, D., & Garigliany, M.-M. (2019).
A novel parvovirus, Roe deer copiparvovirus, identified in Ixodes ricinus ticks.
Virus Genes, 55(3) 425-428.

Marcon, A., Linden, A., Satran, P., Gervasi, V., Licoppe, A., & Guberti, V. (2019).
R0 Estimation for the African Swine FeverEpidemics in Wild Boar of Czech Republic and Belgium.
Veterinary Sciences, 7(1)

Gilliaux G, Garigliany M, Licoppe A, Paternostre J, Lesenfants C, Linden A & Desmecht D. (2019).
Newly Emerged African Swine fever virus strain Belgium/Etalle/wb/2018: complete genomic sequence and comparative analysis with reference p72 genotype II strains.
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 66(6), 2566-2591

Portier, J., Ryser-Degiorgis, M., Hutchings, M., Monchâtre-Leroy, E., Richomme, C., Larrat, S., van der Poel, W., Dominguez, M., Linden, A. et al. (2019).
Multi-host disease management: the why and the how to include wildlife.
BMC Veterinary Research. 15(295)

Benzarti, E., Garigliany, M.-M., Hauman, D., Paternostre, J., Linden, A., Franssen, M., Sarlet, M., Cassart, D., & Desmecht, D. (2019).
First Evidence of Fatal Usutu Virus Natural Infections in an Anatidae, the Common Scoter (Melanitta nigra).
Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.), 2019, 19 (10) 777-780

Benzarti, E., Linden, A., Desmecht, D., & Garigliany, M.-M. (2019).
Mosquito-borne epornitic flaviviruses: an update and review.
Journal of General Virology, 100(2), 119-132.

Gerbier, G., Linden A., Licoppe, A., Desvaux, S., Rossi, S. (2019).
Control measures taken to fight against a transboundary animal disease: The African swine fever example in France and in Belgium.
Epidémiologie et santé animale, 2019, n°75.



Linden, A., Licoppe, A., Volpe, R., Paternostre, J., Lesenfants, C., Cassart, D., Garigliany, M.-M., Tignon, M., Van Den Berg, T., Desmecht, D., & Cay, A. B. (2018).
Summer 2018: African swine fever virus hits north-western Europe.
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 66 (1),54-55

Garigliany, M.-M., Sarlet, M., Franssen, M., Desmecht, D., Volpe, R., Lesenfants, C., Paternostre, J., & Linden, A. (2018).
Re-emergence of canine distemper in wildlife in Belgium.
Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association,182(15), 439.



Sonneburg, J., Ryser-Degiorgis, M. P., Kuiken, Ferroglio, E., Ulrich, R. G., Conraths, F. J., Gortazar, C., Acevedo, P., Agreiter,A., Bajer, A., Barlow, A., Linden, A. & Staubach, C. (2017).
Harmonizing methods for wildlife abundance estimation and pathogen detection in Europe-a questionnaire survey on three selected host-pathogen combinations.
BMC Veterinary Research, 13 (53)

Garigliany, M.-M., Linden, A., Gilliaux, G., Levy, E., Sarlet, M., Franssen, M., Benzarti, E., Derouaux, A., Francis, F., & Desmecht, D. (2017).
Usutu virus, Belgium, 2016.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 48(1), 116-119.

Cadar, D., Luhken, R., van der Jeugd, H., Garigliany, M.-M.* , Ziegler, U., Keller, M., Lahoreau, J., Lachmann, L., Becker,N., Kik, M., Oude Munnink, B. B., Bosch, S., Tannich, E., Linden, A. et al. (2017).
Widespread activity of multiple lineages of Usutu virus, western Europe, 2016.
Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, 22(4).

Caron, Y., Losson, B., Bayrou, C., Linden, A., & Boue, F. (2017).
Cranial abdominal mass due to Echinococcus multilocularis in a two-year-old wirehaired dachshund in Wallonia (Belgium).
Veterinary Record Case Reports, 5(1).



Grégoire, F., Cassart, D., Desmecht, D., Madani, N., & Linden, A. (2016).
Meningitis and orchitis in a hare (Lepus Europaeus) infected with Francisella tularensis.
Veterinary Record Case Reports, 2016, 4(1)

Van Borm, S., Rosseel, T., Marché, S., Steensels, M., Vangeluwe, D., Linden, A., van den Berg, T., & Lambrecht, B. (2016).
Complete coding sequence of one H9 and three H7 low pathogenic influenza viruses circulating in wild birds in Belgium, 2009-2012.
Genome Announcements, 4(3).

Steensels, M., Vangeluwe, D., Linden, A., Houdart, P., Van Den Berg, T., & Lambrecht, B. (2016).
One decade of active avian influenza wild bird surveillance in Belgium showed a higher viroprevalence in hunter-harvested than live-ringed birds.
Avian Diseases, 60(1s), 387-393.



Thiry, D., Mauroy, A., Saegerman, C., Licoppe, A., Fett, T., Thomas, I., Brochier, B., Thiry, E., & Linden, A. (2015).
Re-emergence of canine Zoonotic Reservoir of Hepatitis E virus.
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 64,764-773

Thiry D.; Mauroy A., Saegerman C., Licoppe A., Fett T., Thomas I., Brochier B., Thiry E., Linden A. (2015).
Belgian Wildlife as Potential Zoonotic Reservoir of Hepatitis E Virus
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases.



Nahayo A, Bardiau M, Volpe R, Pirson J, Paternostre J, Fett T, Linden A. (2014)
Molecular evidence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Belgium.
BMC Veterinary Research, 10:80



Obsomer V, Wirtgen M, Linden A, Claerebout E, Heyman P, Heylen D, Madder M, Maris J, Lebrun M, Tack W, Lempereur L, Hance T & Van Impe, G. (2013).
Spatial disaggregation of tick occurrence and ecology at a local scale as a preliminary step for spatial surveillance of tick-borne diseases: general framework and health implications in Belgium.
Parasit Vectors, 6: 190.

Linden, A., Thiry, D., Van Gucht, S., & Wautier, M. (2013).
Hepatitis E virus.
Trends and sources, report on zoonotic agents in Belgium, 70-71.



Linden A, Desmecht D, Volpe R, Wirtgen M, Grégoire F, Pirson J, Paternostre J, Kleijnen D, Schirrmeier H, Beer M & Garigliany MM. (2012).
Epizootic spread of schmallenberg virus among wild cervids, Belgium, fall 2011.
Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12): 2006-2008.

Linden, A., Wirtgen, M., Nahayo, A., Heyman, P., Niedrieg, M., & Schulze, Y. (2012).
Tickborne encephalitis virus antibodies in wild cervids in Belgium.
Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association, 170.

Grégoire F, Mousset B, Hanrez D, Michaux C, Walravens K & Linden A. (2012).
A serological and bacteriological survey of brucellosis in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Belgium.
BMC Veterinary Research, 8(80).

Lempereur L, Wirtgen M, Nahayo A, Caron Y, Shiels B, Saegerman C, Losson B & Linden A. (2012).
Wild cervids are host for tick vectors of Babesia species with zoonotic capability in Belgium.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Diseases, 12(4): 275-280.

Garigliany MM, Bayrou C, Kleijnen D, Cassart D, Jolly S, Linden A & Desmecht D. (2012).
Schmallenberg virus: a new Shamonda/Sathuperi-like virus on the rise in Europe.
Antiviral Research, 95(2): 82-87.

Ooka T, Seto K, Linden A, Bardiau M, Mainil J & Hayashi T. (2012).
Clinical significance of Escherichia albertii.
Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3): 488-492.

Cochez C, Lempereur L, Madder M, Claerebout E, Simons L, De Wilde N, Linden A, Saegerman C, Heyman P & Losson B. (2012).
Foci report on indigenous Dermacentor reticulatus populations in Belgium and a preliminary study of associated babesiosis pathogens.
Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 26(3): 355-358.

Linden A. (2012).
Paratuberculosis or Johne’s disease.
In D., Gavier-Widen, P., Duff, & A., Meredith (Eds.), Infectious Diseases of Wild Mammals and Birds in Europe, 281-288. Wiley-Blackwell.

Linden A. (2012).
Paratuberculosis in wild cervids
In: Infectious Diseases of Wild Mammals and Birds in Europe, D. Gavier-Widen, P. Duff, A. Meredith eds, Wiley-Blackwell publisher, 2012, 120-137.



Linden A, Wirtgen M, Volpe R, Nahayo A, Pirson J, Paternostre J & Grégoire F. (2011).
Surveillance of wildlife diseases in Belgium.
Epidémiologie et Santé Animale, 59-60: 213-215.

Proaño-Perez F, Benitez-Ortiz W, Desmecht D, Coral M, Ortiz J, Ron L, Portaels F, Rigouts L & Linden A. (2011).
Post-mortem examination and laboratory-based analysis for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis among dairy cattle in Ecuador.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 101(1-2): 65-72.

Proaño-Perez F, Benitez W, Portaels F, Rigouts L & Linden A. (2011).
Situation of bovine tuberculosis in Ecuador.
Revista panamericana de salud publica, 30(3): 279-286.

Wirtgen M, Nahayo A, Linden A, Losson B, Garigliany MM & Desmecht D. (2011).
Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks.
Veterinary Record, 168(7): 195.



Linden A, Grégoire F, Nahayo A, Hanrez D, Mousset B, Massart L, De Leeuw I, Vandemeulebroucke E, Vandenbussche F & De Clercq K. (2010).
Bluetongue virus in wild deer, Belgium, 2005-2008.
Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(5): 833-836.

Bardiau M, Grégoire F, Muylaert A, Nahayo A, Duprez JN, Mainil J & Linden A. (2010).
Enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterohaemorragic (EHEC) and verotoxigenic (VTEC) Escherichia coli in wild cervids.
Journal of Applied Microbiology, 109(6): 2214-2222.

Lebrun M, Mainil J & Linden A. (2010).
Cattle enterotoxaemia and Clostridium perfringens: description, diagnosis and prophylaxis.
Veterinary Record, 167(1): 13-22.



Proaño-Perez F, Benitez-Ortiz W, Celi-Erazo M, Ron-Garrido L, Benitez-Capistros R, Portaels F, Rigouts L & Linden A. (2009).
Comparative intradermal tuberculin test in dairy cattle in the north of Ecuador and risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 81(6): 1103-1109.

Van Galen G, Busoni V, Sandersen C, Verwilghen D, Cassart D, Linden A, Fortier G & Amory H. (2009).
A case of a periarticular abscess and suppurative arthritis of the atlanto-occipital joint.
Equine Veterinary Education, 21(7): 340-343.



Linden A, Mousset B, Grégoire F, Hanrez D, Vandenbussche F, Vandemeulebroucke E, Vanbinst T, Verheyden B & De Clerck K. (2008).
Bluetongue virus antibodies in wild red deer in southern Belgium.
Veterinary Record, 162(14): 459

Grégoire F, Mousset B, Hanrez D, Cassart D, Desmecht D & Linden A. (2008).
Cavernous hemangiosarcoma in a free-living red deer (Cervus elaphus).
Veterinary Record, 162(21): 692-693.

Desmecht D, Vanden Bergh R, Sartelet A, Leclerc M, Mignot C, Misse F, Sudraud C, Berthemin S, Jolly S, Mousset B, Linden A, Coignoul F & Cassart D. (2008).
Evidence for transplacental transmission of the current wild-type strain of bluetongue virus serotype-8 in cattle.
Veterinary Record, 163(2): 50-52.



Lebrun M, Filée P, Mousset B, Desmecht D, Galleni M, Mainil J & Linden A. (2007).
The expression of Clostridium perfringens consensus beta2 toxin is associated with bovine enterotoxaemia syndrome.
Veterinary Microbiology, 120(1-2): 151-157.

Lebrun M, Filée P, Galleni M, Mainil J, Linden A & Taminiau B. (2007).
Purification of the recombinant beta2 toxin (CPB2) from an enterotoxaemic bovine Clostridium perfringens strain and production of a specific immune serum.
Protein Expression & Purification, 55(1): 119-131.

alm M, Leroy M, Thomas A, Linden A & Desmecht D. (2007).
Differential anti-influenza activity among allelic variants at the Sus scrofa Mx1 locus.
Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research, 27(2): 147-155.

Prevot V, Tweepenninckx F, Van Nerom E, Linden A, Content J & Kimpe A. (2007).
Optimization of polymerase chain reaction for detection of Clostridium botulinum type C and D in bovine samples.
Zoonoses and Public Health, 54(8): 320-327.

Thiry J, Widen F, Grégoire F, Linden A, Belak S & Thiry E. (2007).
Isolation and characterisation of a ruminant alphaherpesvirus closely related to bovine herpesvirus 1 in a free-ranging red deer.
BMC Veterinary Research, 3: 26.

Martin N, Mousset B, Duprez JN, Grégoire F, Hoyoux A, Linden A & Mainil J. (2007).
Profils de résistance aux antibiotiques de souches d’Enterococcus sp et d’Escherichia coli isolées dans les matières fécales de sangliers et cervidés sauvages.
Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire, 151: 55-60.



Thomas A, Leprince P, Dizier I, Ball HJ, Gevaert K, Van Damme J, Mainil J & Linden A. (2005).
Identification by two-dimensional electrophoresis of a new adhesion expressed by a low-passaged strain of Mycoplasma bovis.
Research in Microbiology, 156(5-6): 713-718.

Roels S, De Bosschere H, Saegerman C, Desmecht D, Vanopdenbosch & Linden A. (2005).
First results of chronic wasting disease (CWD) surveillance in the south-eastern part of Belgium.
Veterinary Quarterly, 27(3): 98-104.

Thomas A, Linden A, Mainil J, Bischof D, Frey J & Vilei E. (2005).
Mycoplasma bovis shares insertion sequences with Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC: evolutionary and developmental aspects.
FEMS Microbiology Letters, 245(2): 249-255.